Agricultural Provisions in the Reduction Act of 2022

Agricultural Provisions in the Reduction Act of 2022

In a recent report by the Agricultural & Food Policy Center (AFPC), we provided an overview of the agricultural provisions included in the recently-passed Inflation Reduction Act (IRA) of 2022.  The IRA was a Senate-led compromise that broke the months-long logjam over the Build Back Better (BBB) Act that had been stalled in the Senate.  As noted in Figure 1, the funding for agriculture in the IRA was less than half of what had been proposed in the BBB.

As noted in Figure 1, roughly half of the funding for agriculture goes to conservation.  Specifically, the IRA provides an additional $8.45 billion for the Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP), $3.25 billion for the Conservation Stewardship Program (CSP), $1.4 billion for the Agricultural Conservation Easement Program (ACEP), $4.95 billion for the Regional Conservation Partnership Program (RCPP), $1 billion for Conservation Technical Assistance, and $300 million for USDA to collect “field-based data” to quantify carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions.  Importantly, beyond the temporary funding increases, the authorizations for all of these programs – including the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) – were extended through fiscal year 2031.

The IRA also provided $3.1 billion for loan relief to borrowers with “at-risk agricultural operations” and almost $3 billion in assistance and support for “underserved farmers, ranchers, and foresters,” of which $2.2 billion is for financial assistance – including the cost of any financial assistance – to producers determined to have experienced discrimination prior to January 1, 2021, in any USDA farm lending programs.  As noted in a recent Southern Ag Today article, initial versions of the IRA had left out debt relief, but the version that was signed into law ultimately addressed the issue.  

Finally, the IRA provided over $13 billion for rural development programs – most of which is for rural electric cooperative loans – and almost $5 billion for forestry-related provisions.

We are frequently asked about the impact that this will have on the next farm bill.  While one can argue that an additional infusion for farm bill conservation programs is helpful, it is important to note that the additional funding dries up in fiscal year 2026, which will likely coincide with the mid-point of the next farm bill.  This undoubtedly will complicate what are already guaranteed to be complicated farm bill deliberations next year.

Figure 1. Comparing Estimated Outlays for Agriculture under the Build Back Better (BBB) Act and the Inflation Reduction Act (IRA), FY2022-31.


Fischer, Bart L., and Joe Outlaw. “Agricultural Provisions in the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022“. Southern Ag Today 2(36.4). September 1, 2022. Permalink

Crop Insurance Loss Ratio Trends Over Time

Crop Insurance Loss Ratio Trends Over Time

The Risk Management Agency (RMA) is responsible for rating crop insurance in an actuarially sound way. Unlike private insurance companies, RMA is not driven by profit when determining rates. Premium rates do not include the cost of sales, underwriting, loss adjustments, or the operating costs of RMA. Legislative language instructs that “the amount of the premium shall be sufficient to cover anticipated losses and a reasonable reserve[1].” RMA considers actual production history in the rating process, and rates are established independently of crop and geographic region. The loss experience of rice is not a factor when developing a premium rate for corn. Likewise, the loss experience of corn in Mississippi is not a factor when developing a premium rate for corn in Illinois. 

The politics of crop insurance comes into play with the premium subsidy percentage amounts set by policy. Subsidy percentages are equitable across all crops, though, with each crop receiving the same subsidy percentage dependent on coverage level and unit choice. Total acres insured, coverage level, and premium rates all factor into the total amount of subsidies received by a crop. As seen in Figure 1., corn has received a total of $24.6 billion of crop insurance subsidies in the past decade, followed by soybeans at $14.9 billion. Rice and peanuts have total subsidy amounts of $617 million and $424 million, respectively, over the past decade.  

Crop insurance performance is often judged by loss ratios. A loss ratio is simply calculated as indemnity payments divided by total premium. A loss ratio of 1.0 means that indemnity payments equaled total premiums. A loss ratio greater than 1.0 means indemnity payments exceed premiums, and a loss ratio less than 1.0 means total premiums exceed indemnity payments. The Risk Management Agency (RMA) is statutorily mandated to achieve a target loss ratio of 1.0. While loss ratios can fluctuate year-to-year, the national and crop-specific ratios have been trending down since 1989, as seen in Figure 2. Interestingly, many crops have trended down at similar rates. Rice, cotton, wheat, soybeans, and the national total have similar sloping trend lines. Corn has trended down but at a slower rate than the previously mentioned crops. Peanuts have seen the most dramatic decrease in the trend of any crop.    

Figure 1. Total 10 Year Subsidy Amount by Crop, 2013-2022

Source: USDA-RMA Summary of Business – Report Generator (

Figure 2. U.S. Crop Insurance Loss Ratio Trends Over Time by Selected Crops, 1989-2021

Source: USDA-RMA Summary of Business – Report Generator (

[1] Coble, K. H., Knight, T. O., Goodwin, B. K., Miller, M. F., Rejesus, R. M., & Duffield, G. (2010). A comprehensive review of the rma aph and combo rating methodology: Final report. Prepared by Sumaria systems for the risk Management agency.

Maples, William E., and Keith H. Coble. “Crop Insurance Loss Ratio Trends Over Time“. Southern Ag Today 2(34.4). August 18, 2022. Permalink

Debt Relief for Certain Farmers & Ranchers

Debt Relief for Certain Farmers & Ranchers

On March 11, 2021, President Biden signed the American Rescue Plan (ARP) Act of 2021 into law.  Section 1005 of the act required the Secretary to make payments to socially disadvantaged farmers or ranchers “in an amount up to 120 percent of the outstanding indebtedness” of eligible producers for both direct and guaranteed loans administered by various USDA agencies.[1]  While USDA immediately went to work implementing the provisions, multiple lawsuits were filed – alleging that the provision was unconstitutional because it violates the Due Process Clause of the Fifth Amendment – and 3 courts have issued injunctions prohibiting USDA from issuing any payments, loan assistance, or debt relief pursuant to Section 1005.[2]  According to USDA, the injunctions “do not prohibit FSA from completing administrative actions leading up to payments, including providing payment notifications to potentially eligible borrowers.”[3]  At the time of passage, the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) estimated the provision would cost $3.98 billion over the next 10 years.[4]

            In the meantime, the Build Back Better Act (BBB) of 2021 – which passed the House on November 19, 2021 – sought to remedy the concerns raised about Section 1005 in the American Rescue Plan.  Specifically, Section 12101 of the BBB amends Section 1005 of ARP, in part, by changing the focus of the debt relief to “economically distressed borrowers” with eligibility tied to eight (8) broad criteria ranging from debt delinquency metrics to whether the farm or ranch was headquartered in a county with a poverty rate of 20 percent or greater.[5]  With the presumably expanded list of eligible borrowers, CBO estimated that the provision would cost $6.647 billion over the next 10 years.[6]  Due, in part, to the price tag of the overall bill, the BBB has languished in the Senate for the last several months.

            Last week, Senators Schumer and Manchin announced a joint agreement to add various provisions from the BBB – via the Inflation Reduction Act of 2022 – to the FY2022 Budget Reconciliation Bill.[7]  In our review of the draft legislation posted last week, it does not appear that debt relief for farmers and ranchers was included.  While Congressional leaders may have plans for including debt relief in another legislative vehicle, unless and until they do – or unless and until the courts rule on the pending cases or lift the existing injunctions – potentially eligible farmers and ranchers will have to keep waiting.  


[2] See Holman v. Vilsack, 21-1085-STA-jay, Order Granting Motion for Preliminary Injunction (July 8, 2021); Miller v. Vilsack, 4:21-cv-00595-O, Order (July 1, 2021); Wynn v. Vilsack, 3:21-cv-00514-MMH-JRK, Order (June 23, 2021). 






Fischer, Bart, and Tiffany Dowell-Lashmet. “Debt Relief for Certain Farmers & Ranchers“. Southern Ag Today 2(32.4). August 4, 2022. Permalink

An Initial Look at Forced Base Update on the South

An Initial Look at Forced Base Update on the South

One of the questions policy economists get the most from farmers is how likely is it that they will get to update their base acres in the hopes of finally converting their non-base acres into base.  For example, there is a significant amount of cotton produced in the Texas Panhandle that does not have seed cotton base and therefore is not eligible for ARC or PLC protection.  In previous base update opportunities provided in the 2002, 2014 and 2018 (for cotton only) Farm Bills, producers always had the choice to stay with the crop bases that were established in the 1985 Farm Bill or update to align their crop bases more closely to current plantings.  Given the choice, producers rarely would choose to have less total base acres even if it meant more closely aligning their bases to current plantings.  This type of update has generally been scored by the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) as having a positive cost so Congress has had to find the money to update crop bases.

One of the suggestions currently making the rounds in Washington D.C. is a forced base update where producers who were planting less than their farm’s base acres during some specified time period would lose base and similarly, those that were planting more than their current base acres would gain base.  Proponents see this as costing less to implement, as some farmers will most certainly gain base acres while others would lose base.  While the devil is very much in the implementation details that would be determined by USDA, a quick evaluation of USDA-NASS planted acre data relative to USDA-FSA base acre data for the 13 Southern States indicates the South would lose a considerable amount of base in a forced base update situation where keeping old crop bases would not be an option.

Table 1 compares the planted acres of nine primary covered commodities (corn, grain sorghum, soybeans, rice, wheat, cotton, peanuts, barley and oats) in the South and indicates that an average of 53.6 million acres were planted in 2021 and 2022.  This compares to 2021 total base acres of 62.1 million acres.  Producers planted roughly 8.5 million acres less than their crop bases during that time period.  Of the 13 Southern States, only Kentucky, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia planted more acres than they have crop base.

While this quick analysis only looked at planted acres over two years, it still provides a good indication of what the direction of the overall impact would be on the Southern States.   A forced base update is still just one of many proposals that are floating around Washington as farm bill discussions are just getting started.  Individual farmers may benefit drastically; however, it is important to understand that a forced base update will have significant negative repercussions on the South as a whole.

Table 1.  Planted Acres of Nine Primary Covered Commodities for 2021 and 2022 and 2021 Base Acres.

Outlaw, Joe. “An Initial Look at Forced Base Update on the South“. Southern Ag Today 2(30.4). July 21, 2022. Permalink

The Trillion Dollar “Farm” Bill

The Trillion Dollar “Farm” Bill

In May 2022, the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) released its latest 10-year budget projections for a number of Federal programs, including farm-related programs and the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP).  While CBO typically updates its budget projections up to three times per year, the spring update following the release of the President’s budget is most closely watched as it typically is the baseline against which the cost of legislative proposals is “scored” throughout the year.

During farm bill reauthorization years, CBO typically also releases their baseline projections by farm bill title.  That summary gives policymakers a clear picture of the budget for mandatory spending they have to work with in each title of the farm bill.  That estimate also gives a clear picture of what CBO expects the entire farm bill to spend if existing policies were simply maintained going forward.

While we are still a year out from CBO releasing baseline projections by title, there is still plenty to be gleaned from the May 2022 baseline update.  For example, if we look back to the April 2018 baseline (the scoring baseline for the 2018 Farm Bill), the spending projections for CCC Price Support and Related Activities, Conservation, SNAP, and Crop Insurance accounted for $865.9 billion (Table 1), or 99.85% of the $867.2 billion in projected total baseline outlays for the farm bill.  

 Applying the same methodology to the most recent May 2022 baseline update, those four categories are projected to spend approximately $1.3 trillion over the next 10 years (Table 1).  The significant increase is due to a 66.4% increase in projected spending on SNAP, with SNAP now projected to account for $1.1 trillion, or 84% of the total farm bill baseline.  By contrast, the income support provisions for agricultural producers that make up the largest component of Title 1 – the Agriculture Risk Coverage (ARC) and Price Loss Coverage (PLC) programs – are projected to spend $43.3 billion over the next 10 years, or just 3.3% of the total farm bill baseline.

Table 1.  Congressional Budget Office (CBO) 10-Year Outlays in Million$

 April 2018May 2022Change($)Change (%)
CCC Price Support & Related 1/64,30571,092+6,787+10.6%
SNAP 2/663,8281,104,384+440,556+66.4%
Crop Insurance78,03779,761+1,724+2.2%

1/ CBO included $10 billion in “Other Administrative CCC Spending” in the May 2022 baseline update.
2/ Revised economic assumptions and administrative changes to the Thrifty Food Plan (TFP) resulted in the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) projecting an additional $254 billion in SNAP outlays from FY2022-31 (

Fischer, Bart. “The Trillion Dollar “Farm” Bill“. Southern Ag Today 2(28.4). July 7, 2022. Permalink

Broadband Adoption and Impacts on COVID-19 Unemployment Recovery in the South

Broadband Adoption and Impacts on COVID-19 Unemployment Recovery in the South

Looking at unemployment rates experienced from February to December of 2020 paints a picture of the resiliency of southeastern states counties to the COVID-19 pandemic. As shutdowns took place and unemployment rates rose, telework became an important factor in recovery. Across the 1,206 counties of the 12 southeastern states, rates of telework ability – defined as the percentage of jobs that could be done remotely – ranged from 22% to 43%.  As the pandemic unfolded, the resiliency of each county was determined by industry composition, unemployment rates at the beginning of the pandemic, county demographic characteristics, and –  broadband adoption rates. 

Household broadband subscription rates ranged from 34% to 94% across the counties in the sample, and the results demonstrate that these differences are vital. The ability to telework had no impact on unemployment rates from February to April in counties with broadband adoption rates under 50%. Although some individuals may have been employed in occupations that were telework-friendly, their home broadband situation may have prevented them from continuing work. Alternatively, telework increased resilience in counties with higher broadband adoption rates, with marginal effects of -0.21 percentage points. That is, counties with high rates of broadband adoption had more resiliency (lower increases in unemployment) during the first two months of the pandemic.  During the April to December period, areas where a high percentage of workers could telework – but had low broadband adoption – saw lower rates of recovery. 

During the initial months of the pandemic, a high ability to telework and a high broadband adoption rate helped dampen increases in unemployment rates. However, the longer-term effects of broadband on unemployment recovery were diminished. Counties with a high ability to telework but low broadband adoption rates were held back in recovering from April to December.  This is a striking finding that local broadband adoption rates are crucial for the potential impact of telework. In particular, federal programs put in place to subsidize household broadband access (the Emergency Broadband Benefit and Affordable Connectivity Programs) likely came too late to influence resiliency during the initial phase of the pandemic. 

To read more about these findings and other correlations corresponding to counties resiliency, check out the full journal article: Carvalho, Mckenzie, Amy D. Hagerman, and Brian Whitacre. 2022. “Telework and COVID-19 Resiliency in the Southeastern United States.” Journal of Regional Analysis & Policy,

Carvalho, Mckenzie, Amy Hagerman, Brian Whitacare, and Teresa Haddock. “Broadband Adoption and Impacts on Covid-19 Unemployment Recovery in the South“. Southern Ag Today 2(26.4). June 23, 2022. Permalink